For each of the three causal questions answer the following (and label your answers clearly): a. What is the outcome variable and what is the

 For each of the three causal questions answer the following (and label your answers clearly):

a.    What is the outcome variable and what is the treatment?

b.     Define the counterfactual outcomes Yi(0) and Yi(1)

c.    What plausible causal channel(s) runs directly from the treatment to the outcome? In what direction would that push the results?

d.    Is reverse causality a potential concern?

e.    What are possible sources of selection and/or omitted variable bias in the raw comparison of outcomes and treatment status? Which way(s) would you expect the bias to go and why?

Causal Questions:

1)    Is it the case that in counties with a higher share of opioid addiction, doctors are more lenient when they write opioid prescriptions?

2)     Are rebellions more likely to succeed when more of the population joins them?

3)     Are countries who export more cars wealthier?

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